ATTARIQA HISTORICAL BACKGROUND|
|The word Attariqa means the way of the holy Qura’n and the course of the prophet (Peace be upon him) , his household and pious companions . It means the straight way that Allah, Mighty and sublime He be , mentions in surat Al-Fatiha (Show us the right way , the way of those on whom thou bestowed The grace)1|
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| It is the way of truth and guidance .It is Allah’s way which only the lucky winner in this life and the other life have would walk on (If they had remind on the right way , we should certainly have bestowed on them rain in abundance )2|
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|Some of us may inquire why the call to Attarica was not quite out spreading in the prime of Islam until the reign of the companions. The answer is that, those who lived at that time were not in need for it , for they were originally mystical , pious and Islamic holy fighter , they were close to the prophet in rivalry to imitate him in all of his deeds and gestures (You have indeed in the messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar ) 3|
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| Also the first school to appear was in Yathrib . it contained many religious devoutes who clung to the Qura’n and took the Prophet (Peace be upon him) as their model in religiosity . They went on this situation till Al-Imam Ali , may Allah grant his honour , became the second Imam of Attariqa after the Prophet (Peace be upon him) , for Al-Imam Ali was the closest and the dearest person to our Prophet (Peace be upon him) .
And whom the Prophet has trusted and extolled among all the great men and said about him in Ghadir Khum .” The one who I was his master , Ali , therefore is his master .(O,Allah ! May you guard who patronises him, and reject all those who stand against him) .All the prophetic speeches confirm Ali’s great position and his being the fittest one to be the successor of Attriqa . Thus, he is the Imam of Attariqa and its door in response to the prophet’s saying (I am the town of the knowledge and Ali is its door). He (May Allah grant him honour) did have many pious and sincere disciples. Of these were. Abu Thar Al- Ghufari (died in 22 A.H), Abu Ubauda bin Al-Jarah (died in 18 A.H) and Salman Al-Farsi (died in 26 A.H) and some of the followers likes Sa’ad bi Al-Musayeb (died in 91 A.H) and Salim bin Abdulla (died in 106 A.H). The school of Al-Medinah is regarded as the largest school of Attariqa and the Islamic mysticism (Sufiya). It is followed, then, by Al-Basrah school whose Sheikhs was Al-Imam Al-Hassan Al-Basri (died in 110 A.H). He was one of those who set up the basis of Attariqa, Al-Bay’the (pledge), inheriting it from Al-Imam Ali (May Allah grant his honour). He finished this school following that course. Attariqa, then, successively transferred from one Sheikh to another till reached the time of the sultan of the patrons and the gray falcon Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Gailani-may Allah sanctify his soul-. He established a school which was unique in his time and to which hundreds of the Loyal to Attariqa as well as pious and religious devotees went so as to get some of its knowledge; the approaches of Attariqa, the rely grow law and mysticism. That school enjoyed a very wide fame , so many people stick to it as their guidance to the way of right and faith . It was the best school where Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Gailani preached the congregations of people. The followers used to come to it to listen to the sermons. Thus, that school and its Sheikh were main cause in leading those going astray to the right way and they became followers of this way. Also, Many towns and countries were conquered and many congregations adopted Islam.|
Later on, glaring lights appeared in the horizon incarnated in a sanctified and great character that is of Sheikh Abdul Karim Shah Al-Kasnezani. He enlightened the horizon with his being, and the earth beamed with his light, which is taken from the light of his grandfather Muhammad, peace be upon him. He become one of the poles of Attariqa and the beacon – light through which many people from every distant spot of this world had found guidance, among their king, princes and great persons. They threw themselves on the threshold of his house seeking his appearance. All these abilities and the spiritual talents are an extension, connection and revivals of his grandfather, AlMustafa’s – peace be upon him- deeds which were incarnated in his school (Al-Kassenzain)whish revived the Islamic religion and its noble principle . He was called Muhie Al-Deen after Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Gailani and be had position no one had ever reached. This is due to his noble principles, constant preaching and conduct Al-Kesenazania school begot many pious men who were honest in what they had promised Allah to do , so they became pioneers of Attariqa and guidance to people to the way of right and love . They were the best who commanded to do grace . forbade to do abominations , and followed the way of suety . What we have already mentioned of the history of Attariqa is asserted by the saying of Al-Hafodh Al-Seid Muhammad seddiq Al-Ghamazi , may Allah have mercy upon him , when asked about the first one who founded the Attariqa (Mysticism) and whether it was divinely revealed . He replied “ you have to know that Attariqa was established by the divine inspiration in addition to the Muhammadian religion. (It is , undoubtfully , the charity which is one of the three pillars which the prophet (peace be upon him) made them religion after stating them one by one he said (This is Gabriel “peace be upon him” come to you to teach you your religion) 4 .
Islam is obedience and worship. Faith is light and doctrine . Charity is Maqqam of fear of Allah (To worship Allah as if you see him for though you do not see him , He sees you) . In his same letter , Muhammad Seddiq Al-Ghamasi said-that as it is in Al-Hadith. It is the pillars that matter , and the one who falls short of this Maqqam his religion will undoubtedly imperfect , for he left one of its corners, The ultimate end to which Attariqa calls is the Maqqam of Charity after revising Islam and faith .5
Al-Qushari said “You have to know that the honorable Muslim after the prophet did not acquire a scientific calling , but the companionship of the prophet (Peace be upon him) for it was the best of the virtues . They , therefore , were called companions . People, then differed , and consequently the ranks became different . Thus, those highly interested in religion were called the religious devotees and worshippers, thereafter are heresy was there besides to the wide gap among parties . Each party claimed that they had religious devotees . The sunnate who fear Allah in everything and who leap their heart active had their own calling , that is Sufism ) 6 .
All these evidences confirm the existence of the spiritual content of Attariqa in the prime of the Islam , in the religion of the prophet (P) It was not known as Sufism , for all of them had the same trait . After the calamity of the prophet’s family and the change of the Islamic regime , people inclined to be far from the Islamic conventions . The reality was that people were either money seekers or afraid . They were in rivalry of some mundane ends . Lights of the hearts were put off . some terrible matters took place that affected the religion , facts were about to change this situation went on till it was very necessary to oppose and step that disintegration and to maintain the rules and bases of Attariqa . The following are some of the prophetic Hadiths that assert the perpetually of Attariqa :
• The First Hadith : On the authority of Abu Hureira , Al-Bukhari narrated that the prophet (P) said Allah – Mighty and sublime – He be said (I’ll announce war against those who stand against a patron . The most liked thing to be done is one is fulfillment of this religious duties I imposed on him . He still approach me with supererogatong services till I love him and when so I’ll be the ear with which he hearts; the eye with which he sees ; the hand with which he assaults ; and the legs he walks with . I’ll give him when he asks me , and I’ll protect him when he asks my protection) 1
• The second Hadith : narrated by Abu Na’eem ira Tawns and on the authority of Abu Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the people (Peace be upon him) that Allah-Mighty and sublime He be- says (I accept the prayer of those who through it want to be humble to my mightness and who never become ignorant with my creatures , The one who seeks my content by desisting himself from his whims . The one who spends his day in remembrance of me , and never to sleep while he is sinful . The one who feeds the hungry clothes the rude , is kind to the weak , refuges the strange He is the one whose face shines with sunlight . He evokes me , then , I answer him ; asks me , then , I give him swears by me , then I make it true . I make a learned out of ignorant , light out of darkness. I feed him with my power and guard him with my angles) 7
• The third Hadith : On the authority od Ibn Abbass-(Peace be upon him) Al-Bezar and Al-Beihaqi mentioned that the prophet (P) met a man called Harithah , who asked him (How are you , Harithah) I became a real believe (Faithful) said Haritha . Then the prophet(P) said (Each saying must have a proof , thus , where in that of your faith ?) Myself became wery of life ,therefore, I became awake at night , thirsty in the day as if I look Allah’s throne and see those in paradise
7visiting each one and those in Hell wailing” replied Harithah . The prophet, then , said (You did realize , keep on) .
• The fourth Hadith :On the authority of Omar Ibin-Abu Aheikh and Ibin Habban and Al-Beihaqi narrated the prophets saying (Who devotes himself to Allah will be supplied with his provision from unexpected ways , but the one who devotes himself to life , Allah will change him with it ) 8 .
• The fifth Hadith :on The authority of Shaddad Ibin Auss based on the narration of Attermithi that the prophet (P) said , (The subtle is the one who reproaches himself and works for his after life , but the loaf is the one who follows the whims of self and ask Allah the wishes) 9
• The sixth hadith : The two sheikhs related on the authority of abu Hurira that the prophet (P) said , in the Hadith when he asked Gabreil about charity ,(Charity is to worship Allah as if you see Him ; for though you do not see him , He sees you) 10.
• The Seventh Hadith :On the authority of Abu Huriera and Al-Hakim , the prophet said (Love the poor and sit with them) 11.
It would take much if we are to gather all things related for the ways of sufism . Thus what has been given here would , be satisfactory enough to show the validity of those who belong to Attariqa .
In the First Hadith the principle of Attariqa’s course is stated for the followers start with diligence and keep on this . The strive to purge their hearts from water or makes a gap between them and Allah . They do everything that brings them close to Allah whether in their words or deeds . They keep on approaching and submitting to Allah in any time and case till reach mortality
In the second Hadith there is a great reference to the status of Attariqa chiefs , for all the traits mentioned through it are the characteristics of the followers of Attariqa and they ask people urgently to acquire them .
In the third Hadith , there is an explanation of the principle and the end of Attariqa , for Harithah-May Allah be pleased with him – was told that he had excited himself in performing the rites , fasting and neglecting life till Allah bestowed him with the ability to see the hidden reality .
There is a reference to the honest follower reffered to in the Fourth Hadith , for it is the manners of Attariqa’s followers to keep reproaching themselves and spending time doing right things , Al-Shafei said , I had accompanied sufis and three words were my profit from it : time is a sword , if you donot cut it off , it will cut you off . if you cannot obsess yourself with good doing it will make you busy with evil thing . And repentance is protection .
The Fifth Hadith urges us to obtain the manner of the chiefs of Attariqa who devote themselves to Allah and acquire their prophet’s (P) manners .
The sixth Hadith has a comprehension reference to the course of Attariqa , for its foundation in the perfection of knowledge and to fear Allah in action and tranquility .
The seventh Hadith asks us to join the sufis and to sit with them , for the complete poor is the honest sufi who gets pleasure from his poverty . We find a kind of a favor to Allah in his poverty . He thanks Allah for it as does the rich for their wealth .
It sound , from the aforementioned Hadith , that Attariqa is the soul of Islam . It is its pivot and base – Because its name emerged some later time is no reason to Judge that it all emerged lately . “ The people’s Tariqa is still the way of truth and guidance for this nation’s ancestor and great men- the companions and followers . Its followers are these who indulge themselves in worship , devote themselves to Allah , Abandon life and its vanities , forsake enjoyment, money and power , keep themselves aloof from creatures and keep alone for worship . This was something general among the companions and ancestors . But in the second century – and after the tendency to devote life , those who devoted themselves to worship were called Sufis , i.e., the followers of Attariqa “12 .
It , therefore seems that naming something like Attariqa is not the same as giving a name to a newly born child since the first one under –goes many development in accordance will that concept as it in the case will the terminology (Readers , jurist- prudents, and narrators). There were many people (the first Muslims) who specialized in reading the holy Quea’n . They , were , then , called the Readers . A group concerned itself with giving religious opinions and decisions about the religious Laws was called jurisprudents . These labels underwent many known development concerning their meanings as it in the case with the newly invented names like mechanical and electrical … etc . Also , the names of Mureed or Sufi is given to the one who gave up life’s pleasures and tended , with a submissive heart , a tongue still in remembrance of Allah and prophet manner , to his cell of worship . He spent his night a wake and his day seeking Allah’s content . The one who brings together the purity of his limbs and the sincerity of his self . The one who is among respond to Allah’s command , (Eschew all sin , open or secret) 13
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| The one who perseveres to say (There is no God ; but Allah or Allah, Allah ) with an attentive heart . sufism was our generous prophet’s (P) habit before his mission . and all what had been narrated about his solitude and devotion to Allah in the case of Hura before becoming a prophet is agreed upon .|
It is worthy to be mentioned here that some people thought that philosophy is a source of Attariqa and its foundations , but this is not right , for the way and end of each are different . And for the same purpose we have no right to regard the Indian or the Chines sufism is one of the powers by which Attariqa was
affected for the course of Attariqa take its origins from the Holy Qura’an and the Sunnah .
The facts of the Greek philosophy and the news of the wise men of India China , and Pesia were transferred to Arabic in the second and third centuries A.H Many of the Greek books of philosophy were translated into Arabic in the reign of Harun Al-Rashid (766-809) A.D . Even in the reign of al –Mamun(786-833) A.D , neither old Greek philosophy , nor Plats’s new philosophy , which is attributed to Ploten (203-270) A.D , had an effect on the Islamic Sufism . It seems that the cause which pushed the orientalists to the illusion is the similarity found between some of Attariqa’s men”s concepts , and that of the philosophers in Plato’s philosophy . It is , in fact , an imperfect investigation and a flimsy proof . Judging by analogy requires at least a scientific comparison between a number of philosophers and a number of great Sheikhs of Attariqa (to be the minimum of the common view) in which the idiological analysis their opinions concerning philosophy and Attariqa is done subjectively without giving mush importance to some of the Sheikh’s rare situations and sayings .
In fact , there is no meeting point between the aims and ends of Attariqa and the philosophy , For Islam is the foundation of Attariqa and its end is to believe it the oneness of Allah and to be have the law of the Qura’an in his doctrine , and his personal and social conduct is in the light of the chaste prophetic career . The great Sheikhs of Attariqa a greed that Attariqa is but to restrict one self to the Islamic bounds , not only in appearance , but from within till he achieves the instructions of the Holy Qura’an in his manners and reaches the true (Maqqam of charity) .
Man has not ceased contemplating what is beyond nature and inquiring about its reality . Many of them differed in this tendency . Some of them devoted all their life in search for this secret , and chose solitude for it . These in Christianity are called (Menks) . Islamic described the Sufis believers as (Men who remember Allah standing , sitting and lying down on their sides , and contemplate (the wonders of) creations in the heavens and the earth (with the saying) (Our Lord not for naught haste thou created (all) this ! Glory to thee ! Gives us sa lvation from the chastisement of the fire ) 14 .
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|We can , therefore , say that man has been and still looking for the knowledge of nature . The similarity , thus , of the course of Attariqa in this tendency with man’s inclination to worship and hermitage before Islam , does not mean that it has been affected by a man – Islamic approach . It is a similarity in a natural tendency and not an international course . Attariqa , as we stated , is following the way of our prophet Mohammad (P) in worship . contemplation and life .|
If we , then , contemplate deeply in life , we will find a strange similarity among most of its field . This may be attributed to the harmony of instinct , recalling the nations or the similarity of human needs and the ways of responding to them , or the resemblance of circumstances and their factors . We may , fot instance , mention the love story which bound Qais and Layla , a story known in Arabic literature as (Majnoon (mad) Layla) . It is the same story repeated in Romeo and Juliet ) in the English literature and in the Kurdish literature in the story of (Memozin) and in the Persian literature in (Shirin and Farhad) story .
In the science of law there are many evidences on the resemblance of many laws and rules in countries where the social and economic circumstances are identical .
Thus , if the course of Attariqa has , in this or that way , some sort of resemblance to the human this didn’t refer to the relationship of extension of existence , but refers to relationship of similarity in mans’s looking up towards matters .
Attariqa is , therefore , a manner which the Islamic law has stated its foundation , and the greatest of its Sheikhs set up its facts .
2- Al-Jinn , Ayat 16.
3-Al-Ahzab , Ayat 21.
4- Part of Hadith mentioned by Al-Imam Muslim in his Saheeh in the book of Imam about Omer Bin Al-Khatab,May Allah be pleased with him
5- Al-Intisar to Tarriqa Assofiya p.6 Muhammad Sedddqi Al-Ghamazi.
6- Kashf Al-Dhunun An asma El-kutua Wal-funun . Haji Kaliphat vol p 414.
7- An Aqreed upon Hadith narrated by Al-Bukhari .
8- Narrated by Muslim .
9-Narrated by Muslim.
12-Ibn Kaldun's Introduction .
13- Al-An'am . Ayat 120.
14- Al-Imran , Ayat 191.
The Book of Attariqa Al-Alia Al-Qadriah Al-Kasnazaniyah -Al-Sheikh Muhammad Al-Kasnazaniy Al-Hussieny.P