AllAHS VICEGERENT ON THE EARTH|
|Having created the globe Allah propagates life and puts his vicegerent to establish His reign on it . In other words , the legatee is to act according to His will and avoid bad deeds . Allah said (Behold your Lord said to the angles : I will create a vicegerent on earth)1 |
وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً
Adam (may he pleased) is the vicegerent as indicated the Ayat and vicegerent . In other cases He said (He who made you his agent inheritors of the earth)2
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلاَئِفَ الأَرْض
And when He addressed Adam’s generation (They said will you (Iace therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood)3
The angles who are to obey sometransparent object in a manner of questioning to acquaint themselves with the characteristics of this vicegerent , because they believe he will make mischief Allah said (I know what you don’t) . Then , they obeyed and postrated in front of Him . Allah , the Truth , said (So the angles postrated themselves , all of them together except Iblis)4
فسجد الملائكة كلهم اجمعون الا ابليس ابى
Then what are the characteristics of this creature ? In Qura’n we gave many characteristics of human beings , the posterity of Adam Allah said ( For man was created weak) 5
وَخُلِقَ الإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفا
And said (He has created man from a sperm drop . And behold this same becomes an open disputer)6
خَلَقَ الإِنسَانَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ مُّبِينٌ
He said (O man , what has seduced you from your Lord, Most Beneficent) 7
يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ
And said (When trouble touches a man he cries unto Us-lying down on his side , sitting or standing , but when e have solved his trouble he passes on his way as if he had never cried to Us for a trouble that touched him) 8
وَإِذَا مَسَّ الإِنسَانَ الضُّرُّ دَعَانَا لِجَنبِهِ أَوْ قَاعِداً أَوْ قَآئِماً فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُ ضُرَّهُ مَرَّ كَأَن لَّمْ يَدْعُنَا إِلَى ضُرٍّ مَّسَّهُ
He said (If we give man a taste of mercy from ourselves , and then withdraw it from him . Behold , he is in despair and falls into blasphemy)9
وَلَئِنْ أَذَقْنَا الإِنْسَانَ مِنَّا رَحْمَةً ثُمَّ نَزَعْنَاهَا مِنْهُ إِنَّهُ لَيَؤُوسٌ كَفُور
Allah ,Al-Mighty , also said (Fretful when evil touches him) 10
إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعا ذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعاً
These are some of the human defects enlisted in Qura’n weakness trouble-making , seducing , depression , fretfulness . As concerning the privileges Allah said (Taught man that which he knew not) 11
عَلَّمَ الْإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ
Allah said (But few of My servants are grateful)12و
َقَلِيلٌ مِّنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُور
And (Those are the ones whom Allah has guided , and those are the ones endured with understanding)13
ُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَاب
These Ayat decide that the human being alone has the capability of acquiring knowledge . He is grateful , and can be guided by Allah , reverend and intellect . These Ayat distinguish man’s behaviour in two categories those who are in the darkness of wrath and stray worthy of being punished , and those in the light of Allah’s grace . Man’s nature , thus of two aspects unlike angles because of his capacity to be lewd but differs from Iblis , the Satan , by his capacity of reverence and goodness . Allah said (By the soul and the proportion and order and its right)14
وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا, فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا
What is the cause of calling the angles to glorify Adam ?
Despite the divine logic beyond such extolling we see that man deserves Allah’s award because of being liable to seduce and be libidinous . He is not infallible as the angles . He is tend to be offensive . He may be willing to act righteously . Allah said (We made him believe who ever thankful or not) 15
إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِراً وَإِمَّا كَفُورا
This is completely different from angles who are made it worship and obey . A righteous man is distinguished by being able to select . He selects obedience to Allah and avoid being lewd thus rightly deserves Allah’s award . The man reconstructed earth and led the struggle between right and wrong . Man is Allah means in challenging Iblis , the cursed on : Man is Allah means in challenging Iblis the cursed one . He said (For my servants you shall have no authority)16
إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَان
This is the burden man carries in the secular world to reconstruct earth and right distribution . Then he is to fight Iblis and his army and their seduction.
Allah said (We did indeed offer the trust to the heavens , and the earth , and the mountains but they refused to undertake it being afraid thereof but man undertook it . He was indeed unjust and foolish)17
إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنسَانُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُوماً جَهُولاً
Allah , Most High , make Adam his vicegerent on earth He and his posterity endowed all responsibilities . They ordered right doing and prohibit wrong doing , until the revelation of Muhammad (may the blessings and peace of Allah be on him ) who claims all responsibilities on earth . Thus he was the greatest vicegerent of Allah , Most High , on earth . Allah said ( There had come to you from Allah a new light and a perspicuous Book) 18
قَدْ جَاءكُم مِّنَ اللّهِ نُورٌ وَكِتَابٌ مُّبِينٌ
In the farewell pilgrimage Muhammad bestowed this legacy to Imam Ali bin Abi Talib and called for following his instructions . Prophet Muhammad said (He who I was his master Ali now is his master). In this manner Ali became his legatee and vicegerent on earth . This legacy then bestowed on Ali’s sons , and posterity being purified by Allah , Most High , who said (And Allah wishes to remove all abomination from you – members of the family , and to make you pure and spotless)19
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً
A poet describe Imam Ali as :
Apride for kings who said he is servant of the one I am his master .
The members of family a text refers to them say “and Allah wishes”
They are reverend servant of Allah who follow the line of their grandfather-Muhammad .
Ibin Al-Arabi discussed this issue , the vicegerent of Allah on earth , say that there are two facets of such legacy . He states “Adam was the able sole vicegerent in mankind because he was evicted on his shape of Allah ) 20 . He added that (when He wanted the perfection of this human generation he gave him all facts and revealed all names thus gained the divine identity and the human personality)21 from the above one can deduce that Ibin Arabi believed that to be vicegerent on earth is a rank deserved by a creation who has the above identities . The celestial and the secular . The one who has the components of truth and the world . The perfect man who can treat truth on one hand and the world on the other He is called (Al-Shaiykh) by the followers of the religious brotherhood (dervish order) He is the guide to comprehension of the truth and the instructor against spiritual temptation and the victualled who supplies the followers with the means to face the divine presence .
The legacy of Allah , according to Ibin Arabi Al-Arabi is the presence of the perfect man in the world with all divine names and features . This rank is referred to in the hadith Qudsi concerning the surplus when the Truth says ( My servant continuously worships me till I love him , then I will be his ear , eyes , and his powerful hands)22
IbinAl-Arabi says (the vicegerent is to appear in what he has granted as a vicegerent otherwise he is not their vicegerent) 23 Man who is a vicegerent of Allah is a servant in the presence of Allah but a Lord in the presence of people for having such divine qualities.
Abi Yazid Al-Bisdami said Allah said ( go you by my character he who sees you see me ) .
1 Al-Baqara, Ayat 30
2 Al-Ana’m , Ayat 165.
3 Al-Baqara , Ayat 30.
4 Al-Hijr , Ayat 30
5 Al-Nisaa , Ayat 28
6 Al-Nahl , Ayat 4
7 Al-Infitar , Ayat 6
8 Yunis , Ayat 12
9 Hud , Ayat 9
10 Ha’arij , Ayat 20
11 Al-Alaq , Ayat 5
12 Saba , Ayat 13
13 Al-Zummar , Ayat 18
14 Al-Shams , Ayat 7-8
15 Al-Dahar , Ayat 3
16 Al-Hijr , Ayat 42
17 Al-Ahzab , Ayat 72.
18 Al-Maida, Ayat 15
19 Al-Ahzab , Ayat 33.
20 Al-Futuhat Al-Makiyah , Ibin Arbi , vol.1p.263.
21 Ibid Vol.1.p.468.
22 Al-Futuhat Al-Makiyah , Ibin Arbi , vol.1p 263