AL-SHEIKH AS MUHAMMADAN’S INHERITOR|
|Al-Sheikh is the spiritual inheritor of Muhammad (P) by his merciful and illumines outlook both apparent and hidden matters can be guided . He is fully a ware of everything since he is spiritually attached to Muhammad (P) . He is the only person authorized by his great predecessors to revive and maintain the Message of Muhammad (P).
To be qualified for this position , the Sheikh must be briefed and guided by a well established Sheikh who is tribally related to Muhammad (P) . He must be a man of self- densialfuly dedicated to the worship of God ; eats , sleeps and speaks moderately . He must be patient , thankful , confident , generous , faithful and modest1.
Al-Kusheiry said “The Mureed must follow a Sheikh , otherwise he wouldn’t be able to achieve his target ; Abu Yazeed says (He who follows no guide , would be lured by the Devil . Abu Ali Al-Daqaq said the tree could be naturally grown up but it couldn’t be fruitful , this is the case of the Mureed)2.
To have spiritual effect is a must for the Mureed which he cannot only through the guidance of the Sheikh . Attariqa is not something scientific that can be learned through books . What had been written by Sheikh can be used as a guide for more understanding . To be purged from bad habits like , lying , envy , flattery and others , the Mureed must cultivate sound behaviour through the Sheikh . In this regard ; it was said :
He who gets knowledge verbally through the Sheikh ,need no book , and he who gets knowledge through books finds his knowledge useless when consulting those men of knowledge .
Al-Sha’arani in (Al-Anwar Al-Kudseiyah) said “All advocates of Attariqa agree that one should depend on a sheikh as a guide to purge one’ own self from all bad deeds which cannot be solely achieved by reading .
Since the Mureed must depend on a Sheikh who has all good traits of truthfulness and real faith , he (the Mureed must follow the (complete Sheikh); the inheritor of Muhammad ; The Al-Mighty said (Ye , who believe ! Fear God , And be with those who are true is word and deed ))3.|
(يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا الله وكونوا مع الصادقين)
To have a well-informed Sheikh as a guide had been already recommended by the Holy Qura’n and Hadith :
The Al-Mighty said (And keep the soul contacted with those who call on their Lord morning and evening , seeking His face , and let not Thin eyes pass beyond them , seeking the group and glitter of this life…)4.
(واصبر نفسك مع الذين يدعون ربهم بالغداة والعشي يريدون وجهه ولا تعد عيناك عنهم تريد زينة الحياة الدنيا)
The Al-Mighty said *Friends on that day will be foes , one to another,-except the Righteous)5
(الإخلاء يومئذ بعضهم لبعض عدو إلا المتقين)
The Al-Mighty said (And follow the way of those who turn to me (in love))
(واتبع سبيل من أناب ألي)
The Al-Mighty said (The Day that the wrong-doer will bite at his hands. He will say “oh ! would that I had taken a (straight) Path with the Apostle .”Ah ! woe is me ! would that I had never taken such a one for a friend ! He did lead me astray from the Message (of Gad) after it had come to me ! Ah ! the evil One is but a traitor to man ! )6.
(ويوم يعض الظالم على يديه يقول يا ليتني اتخذت مع الرسول سبيلا . يا ويلتي ليتني لم اتخذ فلانا خليلا . أظلني عن الذكر بعد از جاءني وكان الشيطان للإنسان جدولا)
he Al-Mighty said through Moses (P) (May I follow thee on the footing that thou teach me something of the (Higher) truth which thou has been taught)7.
هل اتبعك على ان تعلمني مما علمت رشدا
Also in Sunnah and Hadith , the importance of having a good companion to follow , is emphasized ; Ibin Abase (May Allah be pleased with him) said Prophet Muhammad (P) had been asked about the best companion ? He said (He whose sight reminds you of Allah , whose speech urges you fore more good work , whose deed reminds you of the Day after) 8
On the authority of Abu Hureirah (may Allah be pleased with him) prophet (P) said (Man would be like his companion , So beware of your companion)9
On the authority of Abu Thar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said (I said to the Prophet (P) a love people but he can’t do their own deeds). The Prophet (P) said (You , Abi Thar , with those whom you love)10.
On the authority of Omar Al-Khattab , the Prophet (P) said (Some servant of Allah are neither prophets nor martyrs , but the prophets and the martyrs look at them highly for the position they have ), then we said to the prophet : Would you tell us who are those people ? The prophet said (They are those people who loved each other (true love of Allah) without being relatives or having mutual benefits ; their facts are enlightened , and that have light in front of them ; they have no fear when people do , and they do not feel of them ; they have no fear when people do , and they do not feel sad when others do) . Then the Prophet (P) read this Sura (Those votaries of Allah having neither fear nor sadness)11.
From the above , it becomes clear that good companionship has great spiritual effect , between the Sheikh and the Mureed , to attain great position of integrity .
In this regard we may quote some saying by well-established authorities :
Al-Ghazali said (Adherence to sufism is a must , for everyone has a defect , except Prophet (P)12.
Al-Teibi said (He who is well-informed should not be satisfied with the knowledge he obtained , but he should confer with those followers of Attariqa to know the straight path)13.
Ibin Alqeim Al-Jawzi said (If man wants to instate another ; he must be sure of him whether remembers Allah or not , and is he led by whims or by Godly inspiration ?….. If he found to be led by whims . he should be avoided . Man then should come close to his Sheikh , is he remembers Allah , and avoid him if he is led by whims)14.
Interpreting Alfatiha Sura , Al-Razi said (The Mureed has no other choice to be fully dedicated to Allah , unless he finds a Sheikh who guides him to the best way)15.
Ibin Hajar Al-Haithami said (Before the Mureed begins his enderour , he must a bide by whatever his guide tell him to do)16.
Ibin Atta’a Al-Iskandari said (He who tends follow the straightforward path of guidance must find a well informed Sheikh who has great self-denial and fully devoted to allah when he should obey)17.
Abdoul Wahab Al-Sh’arani said (Al-Sheikh marks the road of faith easy for the Mureed by true guidance , and he who has no guide will never find his true way , the Sheikh is like those guides of pilgrims in the dark night)18.
Abu Ali Athaqafi said (If man gets acquainted with all types of knowledge and with various kinds of people , he will never achieve the true objective unless he accompanies a good and well informed Sheikh)19.
The Position of the Sheikh
Prophet Muhammad (P) said (I swear by Allah , that allah loves best those who make others loves Allah , and request Allah to love them , and who abide by advice).
This what really the position of the Sheikh is . A position of high grade in Attariqa ; the Sheikh makes people loves Allah through the love of the Prophet Muhammad (P) and through his guidance . The Al-Mighty said (Say , if you do love God , follow me : God will love you )20
قل ان كنت تحبون الله فاتبعوني يحببكم الله
The Sheikh request Allah to love His servants by self-denial and redeem the heart from my mischief . The servant would win the love of Allah by his complete devotion to the will of Allah .
The Al-Mighty said (When my servant ask thee concerning Me , I am indeed close (to them) – I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he call on me )21.
(واذا سالك عبادي عني فاني قريب اجيب دعوة الداع اذا دعان)
This Sura indicates clearly that in each time three is an Imam who can be authorized to fulfill all needs of the servant (Enter thou then , among my devotees ! You , enter thou My heaven)22.(فادخلي في عبادي وادخلي جنتي)
Grading in Behaviour
Grading means a shift from a position to another , from a state to another . This shift is not physical but it is spiritual and moral for Allah has no physical existence to approach . The beginner Mureed (must be devoted to the worship of Allah by strong determination and complete obedience to be true believer)23.
Grading to advanced position (depends on man’s readiness to purge himself and his heart through each position . Abu Said Al-Kharraz indicates grading by saying that man should start first by Attawbba (repentance) , then by fear (Khauf) then by Raja (request) then to the state of the virtuous and then to the state of (Mureedeen) and to the Obedience , and to the lovers , then to the votaries and then to the position of the closest)24.
For each grade , there are certain deeds to be done and others to be forsaken . The basic source for such true devotion is the Holy Qura’n which fully illuminates the path of true devotion . The Al-Mighty said (And those who strive in our (case) . We will certainly guide them to our paths)25
(والذين جاهدوا فينا لنهديهم سبلنا)
Muhi Aldin Bin Al-Arabi is a good example for the believer who strive strongly with great patience to attain such a position of truthfulness and knowledge . He tells , here the stages (Maqams) that he himself had witnessed :
Maqam of light (Noor) :
He said that he attained this Maqam on 593 in the city of (Fas) when he was performing the sunset collective prayer , suddenly he saw sweeping pure light that enabled him to see everything a round him . He said ( I was like a ball having no specific destination).
Maqam of (infatuation), Alwajd walwalah :
It is one of the most serious Maqams which entails the absence of everything except Allah , So many Imam who have been subject to this state were about to be totally taken by this magic state but the Providence of Allah saved them . I witnessed this Maqam when I was praying with group of people , suddenly I lost consciousness of everything around me , I have been told by witness that in time of praying I used to pray with people without being conscious of it .
aqam of Revelation of Statement :
Revelation of statement is provided to the true Mohammadan who is true in speech and in deed , This truthfulness reaches such a degree that his companion knows everything about him . Such a man does not think or contemplate his ideas to mouth them , but everything comes under the inspiration of God . Such a state is usually accompanied by bodily shivering .
Maqam of Creation (Qaiyomiah) :
During Saturday of 633 if of Higra , I was contemplating creation and creatures , and while in such a heart-taking moment , I came close to the creator Who asked me if there is something puzzling I said : No , He said : all what you see are created by Me , I brought Jesus to reality , and created all secrets of birds .
Maqam of fascinating revelation (Halawat Al-Fatih) :
Muhi Adeen Bin Arabi says that such Maqam lasts with man either one hour or one day or more , in which he feels indescribable glamour that cannot be compared to any sensual or tangible joy .
Maqam of Fann’a :
This is the state of those fully devoted to God who identify the creation with the creator . They find no division between existence and the creator of existence .
Maqam of True slavery (Uboodiyah) :
This is to see Allah as the cause behind everything and to be slave to the will of Allah . Ibin Arabi said “ the describe learns this state through the Sheikh who reaches him everything through the revelation he perceives from Allah .
Grading in those Maqam comes as a result of true adherence to worship and virtues , and by a biding by the teachings of the Sheikh who has great spiritual power .
1-(Kazinat Alasrar). Muhammad Haqi Anazili , p-178
2-Al-Risala Al-Qusheriya ,p199.
3-Al-Tawba , Ayat ,119.
4-Al-Kahaf , Ayat 28
5-Al-Zukhruf , Ayat 67.
6-Furq’an , Ayat 27,28,29.
7-Al-Kahaf ,Ayat 66.
8-Related by Abu Ya’ali and his fellows .
9-Related by Abu Dawood and Tirmithi.
10-Related by Abu Dawood .
12-(Sharh Al-Hukem),Ibin Ajeeba.
13-(Tanweer Alqulub),Amin Al-Kurdi.
14-(Al-Wabil Al-Seeb in Al-Kalam Al-Thaib).Ibin Alqim Al-Jawzi.
15-(Tafsir Mafateeh Al-Ghaib),Imam Fakhr Aldin Al-Razi vol,1.p.142.
16-(Fatawi Al-Hadith),Ibin Hajar Al-Haithami , P.55.
17-Muftah Al-Falah “Ibin Attab Al-Iskandari ,p.30.
18-Latta’f Al-Minan wal Akhlaq “Imam Shaarani , vol.1,p.49.
19-(Tabhaqat a Isufia),Al-Salmi ,p.365.
20-Al-Imran , Ayat 31.
21-Al-Baqara ,Ayat 31.
22-Al-Fajir , Ayat 29,30.
23-(AlUmm’a)Imam Tosi p.47.
24-Huliet Al-Awleiyah),Naim Al-Asfahani .
25-Al-Ankaboot , Ayat 69.