ATTARICA AND THE RIGHT PATH (ASHARIA)|
|The knowledge of Attariqa is regarded as a practical one since it is related to the holy-struggle (Jihad) ; sport , situation , and Maqam . It adds to the doctrinal concepts ; legalization and forbiddance a new spirit . It provides it with religious compassion based on the acts of hearts , the Maqqam and situation . These acts are confirmed to be belief , faith , certitude , truthfulness , faithfulness , knowledge , reliance , love , longing, passion ands other things of Attariqa’s followers , maqqam and states .
Attariqa aims at understanding the worship and laws from inside . for the Holy Qura’n and Sunna are the basis of the science of Attariqa . It must be shown that the Islamic law is the entrance to Attariqa , for it is the door which leads to the truth . Allah –Mighty He be says- (Enter houses through the proper doors)( 1 ). |
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The historians of Attariqa documented this truth , depended on it and founded it . From those we mention the following :
1. Asaraj Atusi : This historians consider both of Attariqa and law to be of the same source , for each of them completes the other . He finds , that the Right Path is based on the narration . whereas Attariqa is based on cognizance . He divides the actions of the apparent limbs into worships such as chastity , prayer , Sakat , fasting … and other things , then the relationship as divorce , sellings , imposed rites , penalty and other things .
The knowledge of Attariqa depends on the interior part (the heart) and for each of these apparent or interior actions these is a science ; jurisprudence , expansion , understanding , reality and cause . The evidence of the validity of each is the verses of the Holy Qura’n and the news of our prophet (P) .
Asaraj Attusi emphasizes his idea that these two knowledges are parallel side by side . In this idea he depends on Allah’s saying ( And had made His bounties flow to you in exceeding measure (both) seen and unseen)( 2 )
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The apparent grace is doing the rites whereas the hidden grace is what Allah bestows on the heart with Al-Ahwal and Maqqam . Still , the apparent cannot comperstate for the interior and vice versa as Allah says , (If they had only referred it to the messenger or to those charged will authorities among them , the proper investigator would Have it from them)( 3 )
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he invented knowledge is that of Attariqa .
The Holy Qura’n and Hadith , or Islam in general , have two faces ; the apparent and the hidden one . The difference between them , Attariqa and the Path is only the means of access . The jurisprudence of law is based on the limbs , whereas the knowledge of Attariqa based on the anterior ones ; I .e , the heart . The Right Path is words ; Attariqa is deeds . The right path is the framework ; Attariqa is the core :
2. Al-Sharani – states that Attariqa’s concept is based on the Holy Qura’n , Sunna , the prophet , manner , and the prison selected by Allah Al-Sharani says , (Sufism knowledge is struck in the hearth of these patrons till they obtain light restricting themselves to the Holy Qura’n and Sunna . Each one who followed the Holy Qura’n and Sunna . Each one who followed the Holy Qura’n and Sunna will find out the knowledge , manners , secrets and facts which the tongues fail to mention . Thus , Sufism is the gist of the servant’s deed towards the rules of the right path free from defects .
Whoever penetrates deeply in the knowledge of the right path and reaches his end will realize that Sufism is one branch of the right law-when the servant proceeds in this way and studies it deeply , Allah will offer him the ability to discover the apparent rules . He is going to find out duties , moral , taboos and wrong things , whoever looks deeply will find nothing of Allah’s knowledge is out of the frame of the right , for law is their connection with Allah . Each Sufi is jurisprudence the otherwise it is not possible .
3.Al-Klabuthi finds that Attariqa’s followers have their own knowledge which distinguishes them from the other . It is telepathy , insights and revelations with interior in the knowledge of the religious laws . He says that the knowledge of Sufism is that of Al-Ahwal . They cannot be inhered , but the right deeds can . The first step from the deeds is to know their knowledge which is the knowledge of the religious rules like prayer , fasting and other religious rites and the knowledge of the relationship such as marriage and divorce sellings and all the matters Allah imposes which are indispensable for living . These are the concepts of learning and acquisition . The first thing the servant has to do is to seek for this knowledge and its rules as much as possible after gaining the knowledge by the Holy Qura’n and Sunna , and what had been agreed upon by our righteous ancestor . If he could remove the similarity he faces and if he rejects the bad thoughts , he will be wealthy by the will of Allah .
Al-Kalabathi shows that Attariqa’s concept in that of the oneness of Allah and knowledge . It is a completion of the Right Path . The one who wants to penetrate deeply into this science has to do and know the affairs of the Right till reaches the science of telepathy , insights and revelations which belong to Attariqa .
This historian divides the science of Sufism into three parts :
A- The science of wisdom . It is the first one needed by the servant . It is based on the knowledge of self , diseases knowledge , sports , and cultivation of its manner , the enemy’s plots ; and life’s illusions and then , to be aware of them .
B- The science of learning ; acquires Allah’s moral its limbs and senses , it will be easy to reform it and purity it from its appearance . Thus , the servant can expurgate its inward intents .
C- The science of indications : It consists of the science of notions and telepathy . It is the science which is distinguished after acquiring the aforesaid science . It is called thus because the ebbs of heart and the revelation of secrets cannot be expressed but learnt through intuition . No one can obtain this except these who go through these situation and solve these maqaqams , Sa’ad Ibin Al-Musieb narrated that Abu Hurierah said , (the prophet (P) said (These is a kind of knowledge which has a hidden shape , It could be learnt only by those who have knowledge of Allah . When they utter it , no one can deny it but the unbelievers ) .
The Prophet (P) said , when asked by Huthaifa Ibin Al-Yaman who was asked by Al-Hassan Al-Basri , then by Abdulwahid Ibin Seid , about the knowledge of interior , ( I asked Gabrieel about it ) , then , the latter said , ( I asked Allah –Mighty and Sublime He be – about it and said “ It is one of my secret . It cannot be acquired only be the one whom I inserted it in his heart”) . Ibin Al-Hassan Ibin Abu Thir in his book ( Minahis Al-Deen) recites :
- Sufism is endless , it is called divine and Godly .
- It is full of benefits known by all eloquent talented men .
4- Abu Naim Al-Asfahani stresses that the followers of Attariqa with their facts have founded their knowledge on four pillars :
A- Identification of the slave’s , their wickedness and intents .
B- Identification of the enemy’s suspicious , plots and qualities .
C- Identification of life and its vanities and pleasures and how to guard oneself against it .
(They restricted themselves on the perseverance of Holy-war and , endurance to waste no time , to seize the chance of doing the rites ; to compare the joys ; to enjoy what they do of worship ; to maintain the religious honour they are bestowed with . They do not reject the intercourse and never incline to interoperations . They wish for no relationship and refuse to be hindered . They follow the first group of migrants (Al-Muhajirin) and the helpers (Al-Ansar) . They leave life’s decorations . They prefer giving and sacrifices . They go with their religion to mountains and deserts in order not to be seen and refereed to . They are pious , hidden and generous . Their doctrine is truth , thus , their hearts are pure) ( 4 )
5- Abu Al-Qassim Al-Qushari is regarded as the most important of Attariqa’s historians . He defended its position in the Islamic concept . His message in the knowledge of Attariqa is but to oppose the enemies of Attariqa and to state its pillars and to bring it back to it its first origin which is one of the prophet’s traits . he explains that those followers are loyal to their doctrine and who cling to their Holy Qura’n and Sunnah ; He makes a distinction between the course of Attariqa in the knowledge and that of the others . This distinction offrs will to the Mureed , for he says (Al Mureed must be honest to make his foundation fixed , for the Sheikhs said that they will be prevented to arrive because the basis . Also . I heard the teacher Abu Ali Al-Daqaq saying , (the beginning must be the correction of his belief in Allah and to be free of suspicious , deception and hearsay . It is undesirable for the Mureed to incline to another creed other than of Attariqa . The relation of the Sufi to one of the controversial creeds is but a result of his ignorance of the creed of Attariqa whose argument is more vigilant than anyone’s and the bases of their creed are stronger than any other creeds)( 5 ) During each of the Islamic ages , there is a Sheikh for Attariqa who has the knowledge of the oneness of Allah and the (imamah) to be the chef of people and all their Imams of that time Yielded to him and the scientists sought his blessing . The matter would be reserved it they had not that special trait .
6- Ibin khalun devoted a chapter in his introduction , called the knowledge of Sufism , In this chapter he summed up the views of all the early historians of Attariqa . He mentioned the importance of Attariqa , its course and rules , Al-Mawajid are Al-Ahwal and maqqam he talked about . Al-Hal is a result of his perseverance and worship . It is a trait which accompanies the self in its sorrow or happiness ; activity or laziness . This “Hall” became a Maqqam when it is fixed in the self . The Mureed is still in progression from one maqqam to another till he reached the state of uniqueness of Allah , knowledge and mortality which are which is the ultimate end that is to get the spiritual happiness . He stresses that , in addition to the knowledge of the general doctrinal rules , the followers of Attariqa are engaged in the holy-war and the self-reproach . They are those who have tastes and Mawajids( 6 ) .
7- Ibin Sina mentioned in his book (Al-Ishorat and Al-Tenbihat) that those who have good knowledge of Allah have ranks and grades of their own . They seem in their life as if they are dressed in gowns of their bodies which they take off and go into the world of sanctuary .
They have hidden secrets inside them and apparent ones which appeal to others who sanctify them . The followers of this course are divided into three divisions :
A- Those who avoid life’s pleasures and are called hermits (Zahid) .
B- Those who preserve to do worship ; prayer , fasting etc.. and are called servants (Abd) .
C- Those who depart with their minds to be sanctuary of Almighty seeking the light of Al-Haq to be enlightened inside themselves are called the knowing (Al-Arif) .
Ibin Sina went out on mentioning the features of the knowing as-Religiousness is a mere relation for those who are knowing as if he buys the other life with mundane things . It is the superiority to what may divert him from the right way-Worship for he normal person is a mere relation as if he works for reward to be obtained in the other life . But for the knowing , worship is a kind of testing of his exhausted powers to keep them off vanity and guide them to the safe side . When the right is clear , the secret will rise up and become a fixed intuition . It will be all affected to the way of sanctity( 7 ) .
The knowing person wants to read Allah , Al-Haq-first of all . He wants his faith not to be affected . He Allah just because Allah deserves it not in dread of him( 8 ) .
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All this shows that the concept of Attariqa makes the Mureed fly in a spiritual atmosphere and a divine light without exceeding the limits of the right path . He takes guidance from the Holy Qura’n and Sunna and takes his manners from that of the prophet (P) , his honchoed , his companions and the perfect knowing Sheikhs . Attariqa is distinguished companions and the perfect knowing Sheikhs . Attariqa is distinguished by having a very restricted order within the wide field of the right path . The Islamic law asks the Mureed to do his prayers as they are , without burdening him to keep his breath so that his heart would not forget the judging-day . Attariqa makes the fear of Allah as an obligation so that the worshipper will do his prayers in constant submission and will get the blessing of the light he alone feels .
Allah says ( Successful indeed are the believers . Those who humble themselves in their prayers)( 9 ) .
There is a lot of praise for Attariqa in al-Imam Ali-Sheikh’s commission to Sheiban the Sufi shepherd when Ahmed Ibin Hamble was at Al-Shafia and Ahiban came . Ahmed said “ Ye ! Aba Abdullah , means Ashafei – I want to wind this Sheiban for the imperfection of his work and his obsession in the obtaining of some science . He addressed Sheiban , and said , “ what do you say about the one who forgets one of the five prayers and who does not know which one of them he forgets ? “ Sheiban said “ This is a heart which forget Allah remembrance and it must be punished , so as not to forget Allah . Ahmed , then fainted and when recovered “, Al-Shafiei said , Did not I tell you not to stir this !”.
Also , they have praise enough in Ahmed Ibin Hambel’s commission to Abu Hamzah al-Baghdadi Al-Sufi and their through of him when he used to send him very accurate matters and say . ( You , Sufi ! what do you think of it ? Also , the submission of the jurisprudence and judge Abu Al-Abbass Ibin Suraj to Al-Qassim Al-Junid Al-Baghdadi – may Allah sanctify his spirit- attending the latter session and saying . “ I do not know he says , but it sounds very authentic and moving . Also , Al-Imam Abu Umran’s obedience to Abu Bakir Al-Shebli when he examined him in matters related to menstruationand gave him seven articles that Abu Umran did not have . It is related that Ahmad Ibin Hambel urged his son to attend his transparent , Sufis when he thought to have sublime status beyond reach .
It must be mentioned that a deputation of famous jurisprudence had attend Al-Sheikh Abdul Qadir Al-Kesnexzani “meeting –may Allah sanctify his spirit – to make an interview in matters related to doctrinal affairs . The venerable Sheiikh’s blessing had overshadowed their attendant’s mind and hearts and made them forget the question for which they came before they had uttered their questions . They , then fled away .
It seems that Attariqa is a preserving to get to Allah’s knowledge by the sentimentality . This sense is achieved in “ fast in the heart , mind and sentimentality and not in the tongue . It can also be achieved through seeing by insight after they make the Right Path as about for their spiritual elation .
( 1 ) Al-Baqarah , Ayat 189.
( 2 ) Luqman , Ayat 20
( 3 ) Al-Anwar Al-Qudsiyah – Abdulwahab Asharani .
( 4 ) Hilyat Al-Awliyaa , Abu Naim Al-Afahani .
( 5 ) Arrisala Al-Qusheiriya – bu Aby Alqasim Al-Qushari .
( 6 ) The introduction by Ibin Khaldun .
( 7 ) Al—laharat Watannbihat , Ibin Sina .
( 8 ) Ibid .
( 9 ) Al-Muminn , Ayat 1.2